Pregnancy - forceps; Labor - forceps
In an assisted vaginal delivery, the doctor will use special tools called forceps to help move the baby through the birth canal.
Forceps look like 2 large salad spoons. The doctor uses them to guide the baby's head out of the birth canal. The mother will push the baby the rest of the way out.
Another technique your doctor may use to deliver the baby is called vacuum assisted delivery.
When is a Forceps Delivery Needed?
Even after your cervix is fully dilated (open) and you have been pushing, you may still need help getting the baby out. Reasons include:
Before forceps can be used, your baby needs to be far enough down the birth canal. The baby's head and face must also be in the right position. Your doctor will check carefully to make sure it is safe to use forceps.
Most women will not need forceps to help them deliver. You may feel tired and tempted to ask for a little help. But if there is not a true need for assisted delivery, it is safer for you and your baby to deliver on your own.
What Will Happen to me During a Forceps-assisted Vaginal Delivery?
You will be given medicine to block pain. This may be an epidural block or a numbing medicine placed in the vagina.
The forceps will be carefully placed on the baby's head. Then, during a contraction, you will be asked to push again. At the same time, the doctor will gently pull to help deliver your baby.
After the doctor delivers the baby's head, you will push the baby the rest of the way out. After delivery, you can hold your baby on your tummy if he or she is doing well.
If the forceps do not help move your baby, you may need to have a cesarean birth (C-section).
What are the Risks?
Most forceps-assisted vaginal births are safe when they are done correctly by an experienced doctor. They may decrease the need for a C-section.
However, there are some risks with forceps delivery.
For the mother, they are:
For the baby, the risks are:
Most of these risks are not severe. When properly used, forceps rarely cause lasting problems.
Nielsen PE, Deering SH, Galan HL. Operative vaginal delivey. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 14.
Thorp JM, Laughon SK. Clinical aspects of normal and abnormal labor. In: Creasy RK, Resnick R, Iams JD, et al, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43.
Review Date: 4/19/2018
Reviewed By: John D. Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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