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Cardiac ablation procedures

Catheter ablation; Radiofrequency catheter ablation; Cryoablation - cardiac ablation; AV nodal reentrant tachycardia - cardiac ablation; AVNRT - cardiac ablation; Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome - cardiac ablation; Atrial fibrillation - cardiac ablation; Atrial flutter - cardiac ablation; Ventricular tachycardia - cardiac ablation; VT - cardiac ablation; Arrhythmia - cardiac ablation; Abnormal heart rhythm - cardiac ablation

Cardiac ablation is a procedure that is used to scar small areas in your heart that may be involved in your heart rhythm problems. This can prevent the abnormal electrical signals or rhythms from moving through the heart.

During the procedure, small wires called electrodes are placed inside your heart to measure your heart's electrical activity. When the source of the problem is found, the tissue causing the problem is destroyed.

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Description

There are two methods for performing cardiac ablation:

The type of procedure you have will depend on what kind of abnormal heart rhythm you have.

Cardiac ablation procedures are done in a hospital laboratory by trained staff. This includes cardiologists (heart doctors), technicians, and nurses. The setting is safe and controlled so your risk is as low as possible.

You will be given medicine (a sedative) before the procedure to help you relax.

Once the catheter is in place, your doctor will place small electrodes in different areas of your heart.

Catheter ablation is a long procedure. It can last 4 or more hours. During the procedure your heart will be monitored closely. A health care provider may ask you if you are having symptoms at different times during the procedure. Symptoms you may feel are:

Why the Procedure is Performed

Cardiac ablation is used to treat certain heart rhythm problems that medicines are not controlling. These problems may be dangerous if they are not treated.

Common symptoms of heart rhythm problems may include:

Some heart rhythm problems are:

Risks

Catheter ablation is generally safe. Talk with your provider about these rare complications:

Before the Procedure

Always tell your provider what drugs you are taking, even drugs or herbs you bought without a prescription.

During the days before the procedure:

On the day of the procedure:

After the Procedure

Pressure to reduce bleeding is put on the area where the catheters were inserted into your body. You will be kept in bed for at least 1 hour. You may need to stay in bed for up to 5 or 6 hours. Your heart rhythm will be checked during this time.

Your doctor will decide whether you can go home on the same day, or if you will need to stay in the hospital overnight for continued heart monitoring. You will need someone to drive you home after your procedure.

For 2 or 3 days after your procedure, you may have these symptoms:

Your doctor may keep you on your medicines, or give you new ones that help control your heart rhythm.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Success rates are different depending on what type of heart rhythm problem is being treated.

Related Information

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References

Calkins H, Hindricks JG, Cappato R, et al. 2017 HRS/EHRA/ECAS/APHRS/SOLAECE expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2017;14(10):e275-e444 PMID: 28506916 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28506916.

Ferreira SW, Mehdirad AA. The electrophysiology laboratory and electrophysiologic procedure. In: Kern MJ, Sorajja P, Lim MJ, eds. The Cardiac Catheterization Handbook. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016;chap 6.

Miller JM, Tomaselli GF, Zipes DP. Therapy for cardiac arrhythmias. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 36.

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Review Date: 7/25/2018  

Reviewed By: Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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