SmartEngageTM

Smoking

An in-depth report on the health risks of smoking and how to quit.

I Would Like to Learn About:

Related Reports

CataractsVitaminsNon-small cell lun...Coronary artery di...Heart attack and a...Heart failureHigh blood pressur...CholesterolExerciseStress

References

Baker TB, Piper ME, Stein JH, et al. Effects of nicotine patch vs varenicline vs combination nicotine replacement therapy on smoking cessation at 26 weeks: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(4):371-379. PMID: 26813210 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26813210.

Benowitz NL, Brunetta PG. Smoking hazards and cessation. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 46.

Berlin I, Grangé G, Jacob N, Tanguy ML. Nicotine patches in pregnant smokers: randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial of efficacy. BMJ. 2014;348:g1622. PMID: 24627552 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24627552.

Bhatnagar A, Whitsel LP, Ribisl KM, et al. Electronic cigarettes: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014;130(16):1418-1436. PMID: 25156991 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25156991.

Cahill K, Hartmann-Boyce J, Perera R. Incentives for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(5):CD004307. PMID: 25983287 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25983287.

Cahill K, Lancaster T. Workplace interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(2):CD003440. PMID: 24570145 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24570145.

Chamberlain C, O'Mara-Eves A, Porter J, et al. Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;2:CD001055. PMID: 28196405 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28196405.

Cooper S, Lewis S, Thornton JG, et al. The SNAP trial: a randomized placebo-controlled trial of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy--clinical effectiveness and safety until 2 years after delivery, with economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2014;18(54):1-128. PMID: 25158081 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25158081.

Ebbert JO, Agunwamba AA, Rutten LJ. Counseling patients on the use of electronic cigarettes. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015;90(1):128-134. PMID: 25572196 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25572196.

Ebbert JO, Hughes JR, West RJ, et al. Effect of varenicline on smoking cessation through smoking reduction: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;313(7):687-694. PMID: 25688780 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25688780.

George TP. Nicotine and tobacco. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 32.

Halpern SD, French B, Small DS, et al. Randomized trial of four financial-incentive programs for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(22):2108-2117. PMID: 25970009 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25970009.

Hartmann-Boyce J, Chepkin SC, Ye W, Bullen C, Lancaster T. Nicotine replacement therapy versus control for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;5:CD000146. PMID: 29852054 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29852054.

Homa DM, Neff LJ, King BA, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: disparities in nonsmokers' exposure to secondhand smoke--United States, 1999-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(4):103-108. PMID: 25654612 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25654612.

Jamal A, Phillips E, Gentzke AS, et al. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(2):53-59. PMID: 29346338 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29346338.

Jha P, Ramasundarahettige C, Landsman V, et al. 21st-century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(4):341-350. PMID: 23343063 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23343063.

Karam-Hage M, Rabius V, Cinciripini PM, Robinson JD, Gritz ER. Nicotine dependence: current treatments and future directions. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 24.

Lindson-Hawley N, Hartmann-Boyce J, Fanshawe TR, Begh R, Farley A, Lancaster T. Interventions to reduce harm from continued tobacco use. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;10:CD005231. PMID: 27734465 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27734465.

Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for lung cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(5):330-338. PMID: 24378917 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24378917.

Patnode CD, Henderson JT, Thompson JH, Senger CA, Fortmann SP, Whitlock EP. Behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco cessation in adults, including pregnant women: a review of reviews for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(8):608-621. PMID: 26389650 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26389650.

Patnode CD, O'Connor E, Whitlock EP, Perdue LA, Soh C, Hollis J. Primary care-relevant interventions for tobacco use prevention and cessation in children and adolescents: a systematic evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(4):253-260. PMID: 23229625 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23229625.

Singh T, Arrazola RA, Corey CG, et al. Tobacco use among middle and high school students -- United States, 2011-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65(14):361-367. PMID: 27077789 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27077789.

Siu AL; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant women: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(8):622-634. PMID: 26389730 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26389730.

Soneji S, Barrington-Trimis JL, Wills TA, et al. Association between initial use of e-cigarettes and subsequent cigarette smoking among adolescents and young adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(8):788-797. PMID: 28654986 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28654986.

Tappin D, Bauld L, Purves D, et al. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2015;350:h134. PMID: 25627664 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25627664.

Taylor G, McNeill A, Girling A, Farley A, Lindson-Hawley N, Aveyard P. Change in mental health after smoking cessation: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2014;348:g1151. PMID: 24524926 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24524926.

Thomsen T, Villebro N, Møller AM. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(3):CD002294. PMID: 24671929 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671929.

Thun MJ, Carter BD, Feskanich D, et al. 50-year trends in smoking-related mortality in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(4):351-364. PMID: 23343064 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23343064.

Ussher MH, Taylor AH, Faulkner GE. Exercise interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(8):CD002295. PMID: 25170798 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25170798.

White AR, Rampes H, Liu JP, Stead LF, Campbell J. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;1:CD000009. PMID: 24459016 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24459016.

BACK TO TOP

Review Date: 6/28/2018  

Reviewed By: Diane M. Horowitz, MD, Rheumatology and Internal Medicine, Northwell Health, Great Neck, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

ADAM Quality Logo

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, for Health Content Provider (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2019 A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.