CSF coccidioides complement fixation testCoccidioides antibody test - spinal fluid
CSF coccidioides complement fixation is a test that checks for infection due to the fungus coccidioides in the cerebrospinal (CSF) fluid. This is the fluid surrounding the brain and spine. The name of this infection is coccidioidomycosis, or valley fever. When the infection involves the covering of the brain and spinal cord (the meninges), it is called coccidioidal meningitis.
Valley fever is an infection that occurs when the spores of the fungus Coccidioides immitis enter your body through the lungs.
How the Test is Performed
A sample of spinal fluid is needed for this test. The sample is usually obtained by lumbar puncture (spinal tap).
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection is a test to look at the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. CSF acts as a cushion, protecting the b...
The sample is sent to a laboratory. There, it is examined for coccidioides antibodies using a laboratory method called complement fixation. This technique checks if your body has produced substances called antibodies to a specific foreign substance (antigen), in this case coccidioides.
Complement is a blood test that measures the activity of certain proteins in the liquid portion of your blood. The complement system is a group of ne...
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include micr...
An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune system does not recognize the su...
Antibodies are specialized proteins that defend your body against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. If the antibodies are present, they stick, or "fix" themselves, to the antigen. This is why the test is called "fixation."
How to Prepare for the Test
Follow your health care provider's instructions on how to prepare for the test. Expect to be in the hospital for several hours afterward.
How the Test will Feel
During the test:
- You lie on your side with knees pulled up toward your chest and chin tucked downward. Or, you sit up, but bent forward.
- After your back is cleaned, the doctor injects a local numbing medicine (anesthetic) into your lower spine.
- A spinal needle is inserted, usually into the lower back area.
- Once the needle is properly positioned, CSF pressure is measured and a sample is collected.
- The needle is removed, the area is cleaned, and a bandage is placed over the needle site.
- You are taken to a recovery area where you rest for several hours to prevent any CSF leakage.
Why the Test is Performed
This test checks if your central nervous system has an active infection from coccidioides.
The absence of fungus (a negative test) is normal.
What Abnormal Results Mean
If the test is positive for fungus, there may be an active infection in the central nervous system.
An abnormal spinal fluid test means that the central nervous system is infected. During the early stage of an illness, few antibodies may be detected. Antibody production increases during the course of an infection. For this reason, this test may be repeated several weeks after the first test.
Risks of lumbar puncture include:
- Bleeding into the spinal canal
- Discomfort during the test
- Headache after the test
- Hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction to the anesthetic
- Infection introduced by the needle going through the skin
- Damage to the nerves in the spinal cord, especially if the person moves during the test
Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Coccidioides serology - blood or CSF. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:353.
Galgiani JN. Coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides species). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 267.
Review Date: 5/10/2019
Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.